Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2007 Sep;16(5):402-12 Richardson J, Smith JE, McCall G, Richardson A, Pilkington K, Kirsch I.
Faculty of Health and Social Work, Portland Square, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, UK.
To systematically review the research evidence on the effectiveness of hypnosis for cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A comprehensive search of major biomedical databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClNAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Specialist complementary and alternative medicine databases were searched and efforts were made to identify unpublished and ongoing research. Citations were included from the databases' inception to March 2005. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were appraised and meta-analysis undertaken. Clinical commentaries were obtained. Six RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of hypnosis in CINV were found. In five of these studies the participants were children. Studies report positive results including statistically significant reductions in anticipatory and CINV. Meta-analysis revealed a large effect size of hypnotic treatment when compared with treatment as usual, and the effect was at least as large as that of cognitive-behavioural therapy. Meta-analysis has demonstrated that hypnosis could be a clinically valuable intervention for anticipatory and CINV in children with cancer. Further research into the effectiveness, acceptance and feasibility of hypnosis in CINV, particularly in adults, is suggested. Future studies should assess suggestibility and provide full details of the hypnotic intervention.